Orgone Biophysical Research Lab
Ashland, Oregon, USA Cosmic Ether-Drift and
Dynamic Energy in Space
Bibliography and Resources
Ashland, Oregon, USA
Cosmic Ether-Drift and
Cosmic Ether-Drift and
If you are interested reviewing the original experimental publications on measuring the cosmic ether of space, or the ether-drift (or ether-wind as it is sometimes called), or methods for measuring the speed of light, then you have come to the right place. If you undertake an internet or library search on this topic, you will find many more statements and articles critical of this older theory than supportive of it. However, as shown in the papers gathered here, a dispassionate and honest review of the scientific literature clearly indicates that many, if not most, of the ether-drift experiments have yielded very clear positive results! Worse, if you try to find the original ether-drift research papers on-line, or even in the libraries, they are often very difficult to find, or they are available only for a fee, or with an expensive subscription to a science journal you might never consult again, even though the copyrights have expired many decades ago. Consequently, as an educational help, I decided to make this easy-access resource page for the ether-drift experiments with positive results, with PDF downloads for the historical papers by Michelson, Morley, Miller and Sagnac, plus more recent publications as by Galaev, Munera, DeWitte, Cahill and others, including a few of my own theoretical papers.
This list below provides those papers which follow a direct line from the early Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887 -- which most definitely did get a slight positive result, requiring further research as noted by Michelson in the published report -- into more recent interferometer-type of experiments, or those which sought to detect speed variances in electromagnetic waves other than visible light. The listing is therefore deliberately constrained mostly to the Michelson-Morley-Miller interferometer-type experiments, or discussions of them, or to the Sagnac-type of experiments as with Michelson-Gale, plus a few related findings by the others mentioned above. It is very incomplete, and I will try to add new materials as I learn about them. I am open to suggestions on new things to add to this list, or corrections to what's here, and especially if you have a PDF scan of any of the papers here which are not yet listed, please feel free to email them for addition, using the address at the bottom of this page.
Have fun, and Happy Ether-Drifting!
James DeMeo, Ph.D.
Articles on Ether-Drift Experiments, Organized Chronologically
* 1679: Letter from Isaac Newton to Robert Boyle, on the Cosmic Ether of Space:
* 1818: A. Fresnel, "Lettre d'Augustin Fresnel a Francois Arago sur l'influence du mouvement terrestre dans quelques phenomenes d'optique", Annales de chimie et de physique, 9: 57-66, 1818.
* 1845: George G. Stokes, "On the Aberration of Light", Philosophical Magazine 27: 9-15, 1845.
* 1859: M. H. Fizeau, "Sur les hypotheses relatives a l'ether lumineux", Ann. De Chim. Et de Phys. 57: 385-404. (English translation below, in 1860)
* 1860: M. H. Fizeau, "On the Effect of the Motion of a Body upon the Velocity with which it is Traversed by Light", Philosophical Magazine/Journal of Science, Fourth Series, Vol.19, p.245-260, April 1860.
* 1882: Albert A. Michelson, "Experimental Determination of the Velocity of Light, Made at the U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis", Naval Observatory, 1882.
* 1887: Albert A. Michelson, Edward W.. Morley, "On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether", American Journal of Science, Third Series, Vol.XXXIV (203), Nov. 1887.
* 1888: Albert A. Michelson, "A Plea for Light Waves", Proceedings, AAAS, Section B, 37, 1888.
* 1889: G. F. Fitzgerald, "The Ether and the Earth's Atmosphere", Science, Letter to the Editor, Vol.13, No.328, p.390, 1889.
* 1899: H. A. Lorentz, "Stoke's Theory of Aberration in the Supposition of a Variable Density of the Aether", Proc. Roy. Soc. 1: 443-448, 1899.
* 1902: W. M. Hicks, "The FitzGerald-Lorentz Effect", Nature, Vol.65, No.1685, p.343, 13 Feb. 1902.
* 1904: H. A. Lorentz & H. Antoon, "Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light", Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences 6: 809-831, 1904.
* 1904: A. Michelson: "Relative Motion of Earth and Aether", Philosophical Magazine, 6(8):716-719, 1904.
* 1904: E.W. Morley, Dayton Miller, "Extract from a Letter dated Cleveland, Ohio, August 5th, 1904, to Lord Kelvin from Profs. Edward W. Morley and Dayton C. Miller.", Philosophical Magazine, S.6, Vol.8, No.48, pp.753-754, Dec. 1904.
* 1905: E.W. Morley, Dayton Miller, "Report of an Experiment to Detect the FitzGerald-Lorentz Effect", Proceedings, Am. Acad. Arts & Sciences, 41:321-328, August 1905.
* 1905: E.W. Morley, Dayton Miller, "On the Theory of Experiments to Detect Aberration of the Second Degree", and "Report of an Experiment to Detect Change of Dimension of Matter Produced by its Drift through the Ether", Science, Vol.XXI. No.531, p.339, 3 March 1905.
* 1907: E.W. Morley, Dayton Miller, "Final Report on Ether-Drift Experiments", Science, 25:525, 5 April 1907. (Here Morley and Miller indicate what history shows, that the low-altitude and stonework facilities in Cleveland were not amenable to clear detection of an ether drift. These experiments did, however, help Miller to refine the interferometer and eventually develop an instrument suitable for full detection of an ether-drift in his later experiments atop Mt. Wilson in the 1920s. The progress of this development is detailed in his subsequent papers below.)
* 1913: Albert A. Michelson: "Effect of Reflection from a Moving Mirror on the Velocity of Light", Astrophysical Journal, 37: 190, April 1913.
* 1913: M. G. Sagnac, "L'Ether lumineux Demonstre par l'effet du vent relatif d'aether dan interferometre en rotation uniforme. Note de G. Sagnac, presentee par E. Bouty", Comptes Rendus, 157:708-710, 1913.
* 1913: M. G. Sagnac, "Sur la preuve de la realite de l'ether lumineux par l'experience de l'interferographe tournant," Comptes Rendus, 157:1410-1413, 22 Dec. 1913.
* 1914: M. G. Sagnac, "Effet tourbillonnaire optique. La circulation de l'ether lumineux dans un interferographe tournant", Journale de physique (5) 4, 177-195, 1914.
* 1920: Albert Einstein, "Ether and the Theory of Relativity", lecture at the University of Leyden, 5 May 1920. Reproduced in many texts and on-line, for example within Einstein: Essays In Science, Wisdom/Philosophical Library, NY, 1934, p.98-111. (Here Einstein states the necessity of an ether for his theory of relativity, though declares it cannot be in motion and must not have any properties attributed to it -- in short, it must be a total abstraction which cannot be detected. If it were measurable, as with variable light-speed, then it would demolish his theory. See the 1925 paper by Silberstein, and the 2002 paper by DeMeo on "Dayton Miller's Ether Drift Experiments", both of which are given below, for quotes from Einstein about this issue.)
* 1921: Silberstein, Ludwik: "The Propagation of Light in Rotating Systems", J. Optical Society of America, 5(4):291-307, 1921. This paper laid the theoretical foundation for the later Michelson-Gale experiment of 1925.
* 1922: Dayton Miller, "The Ether-Drift Experiments at Mount Wilson Solar Observatory", Physical Review, 19:407-408, April 1922.
* 1924: Albert A. Michelson, "Preliminary Experiments on the Velocity of Light", Astrophysical Journal, 60: 256, November 1924.
* 1925: Michelson, A.A., H. Gale & F. Pearson: "The Effect of the Earth's Rotation on the Velocity of Light" (Parts I and II), Astrophysical Journal, 61:137-145, April 1925.
* 1925: Michelson, A.A., H. Gale & F. Pearson: "Letters to the Editor: The Effect of the Earth's Rotation on the Velocity of Light", Nature, 115:566, 18 April 1925.
* 1925: Dayton Miller, "Ether-Drift Experiments at Mount Wilson", Proceedings, Nat. Acad. Sciences, 11:306-314, June 1925.
* 1925: Ludwig Silberstein, "The Relativity Theory and Ether Drift", Science Supplement - Science News, V.62, #1596, p.viii, 31 July 1925. (Quotes from Einstein about the incompatibility of his theory of relativity with the new evidence from Michelson-Gale-Pearson and Miller for ether-drift.)
* 1926: Albert Einstein, "Meine Theorie und Millers Versuche", Vossische Zeitung, 19 Jan. 1926.
* 1926: Dayton Miller, "Significance of the Ether-Drift Experiments of 1925 at Mount Wilson", Science, 63:433-443, 30 April 1926.
* 1927: Michelson, A.A.: Studies in Optics, U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1927.
* 1927: Albert A. Michelson: "Measurement of the Velocity of Light Between Mount Wilson and Mount San Antonio", Astrophysical Journal, 65: 1, January 1927.
* 1927: H. Mineur: "The Experiment of Miller and the Hypothesis of the Dragging Along of the Ether", J. Royal Ast. Soc. Canada, Vol.21, p.206-214, 1927.
* 1928: Dayton Miller, untitled lecture in "Conference on the Michelson-Morley Experiment", Astrophysical Journal, LXVIII:341-402, Dec. 1928; also in Contributions From the Mount Wilson Observatory, No.373, Carnegie Institution of Washington.
* 1929: Michelson, A.A., Pease, F.G. & Pearson, F.: "Repetition of the Michelson-Morley Experiment", Nature, 123:88, 19 Jan. 1929; also in J. Optical Society of America, 18:181, 1929.
* 1929: "Is there an Ether?", Science News-Letter, 9 November 1929.
* 1929: "Solar System Rushing Through Space", Science News-Letter, 30 November 1929.
* 1929: "Miller Challenges Einstein: Explains Ether Drift Research and Function of Interferometer", The Case Alumnus, December 1929, p.10-12.
* 1930: Dayton Miller, "Ether Drift Experiments in 1929 and Other Evidences of Solar Motion", J. Royal Ast. Soc. Canada, 24:82-84, 1930.
* 1930: Newspaper Article: "These Two Disagree on Scientific Precept: Case Savant Continues Attack on Einstein Theory", Cleveland News, 26 Jan. 1930.
* 1931: Newspaper Article: "May Dethrone Einstein: Dr. Miller of Case to Launch New Attack, Prepares 6-Month Test to Prove Ether Drift Exists", Cleveland News, 2 Dec. 1931.
* 1932: R. J. Kennedy and E.M. Thorndike, "Experimental Establishment of the Relativity of Time", Phys. Rev. 42: 400-418, 1932. (This paper is included for one reason only: It unethically derives a positive conclusion in favor of Einstein's relativity theory, and a negative conclusion regarding the ether-drift, in spite of its own significant residuals, and without a single reference to any of Miller's prior work also showing the presence of a measurable ether-drift. It is an example of a paper showing a positive result for ether, but the authors chosing to dismiss a result in favor of a more palatable theory which would be undermined by it.)
* 1933: Dayton Miller, "The Absolute Motion of the Solar System and the Orbital Motion of the Earth Determined by the Ether-Drift Experiment", Science, Vol.77, No.2007, p.587-588, 16 June 1933. Shorter note of same title published in Physical Review, V.43, p.1054, 1933.
* 1933: Dayton Miller, "The Ether-Drift Experiment and the Determination of the Absolute Motion of the Earth", Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol.5(2), p.203-242, July 1933.
* 1933: David Dietz, "Case's Miller Seen Hero of 'Revolution'. New Revelations on Speed of Light Hint Change in Einstein Theory", Cleveland Press, 30 Dec. 1933.
* 1934: Dayton Miller & Georg Joos, "Letters to the Editor", Physical Review, Vol. 45, p.114, 15 Jan. 1934.
* 1934: Dayton Miller, "The Ether-Drift Experiment and the Determination of the Absolute Motion of the Earth", Nature, Vol.133, p.162-164, 3 Feb. 1934.
* 1935: Albert Michelson, F.G. Pease, F. Pearson: "Measurement of the Velocity of Light in a Partial Vacuum", Astrophysical J., 82:26-61, 1935.
* 1936: Newspaper Article "New Evidence Held to Upset Einstein...Existence of Ether Seen", New York Times, p.1, 23 Feb. 1936.
* 1938: Robert A. Millikan: "Biographical Memoir of Albert Abraham Michelson, 1852-1931", National Academy of Sciences, Vol.XIX, Fourth Memoir, p.120-140, Presented to the National Academy Meeting, 1938.
* 1943: Harvey Fletcher: "Biographical Memoir of Dayton Clarence Miller, 1866-1941", National Academy of Sciences, Vol.XXIII, Third Memoir, p.60-74, Presented to the National Academy Autumn Meeting, 1943.
* 1951: Wilhelm Reich: Cosmic Superimposition, Orgone Institute Press, Rangeley, Maine. Republished as Ether, God and Devil / Cosmic Superimposition, Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, NY 1973.
* 1965: John Chappell: "Georges Sagnac and the Discovery of the Ether", Arch. Internat. d'Histoire des Sciences, 18:175-190, 1965.
* 1967: E.J. Post: "Sagnac Effect", Reviews of Modern Physics, 39(2):475-493, April 1967.
* 1979: James DeMeo, "Evidence for the Existence of an Interconnecting Principle...", Appendix to Preliminary Analysis of Changes in Kansas Weather Coincidental to Experimental Operations with a Reich Cloudbuster, Thesis, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Geography-Meteorology Dept., 1979.
* 1991: James DeMeo, "The Orgone Energy Continuum: Some Old and New Evidence", Pulse of the Planet, 1(2):3-8, 1989; German translation "Alte und neue Beweise fur das Orgon Energie Kontinuum", Lebensenergie, 2:13-20, 1991.
* 1996: James DeMeo, "Independent Discovery of a Dynamic Bio-Cosmic Energy in Space and Atmosphere", & "Dayton Miller's Discovery of the Dynamic Ether Drift", Proceedings, SW & Rocky Mountain Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 72nd Annual Meeting, Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, Arizona, 2-6 June 1996. Program and Abstracts, pp.41-42, 1996.
* 1997: Maurice Allais, L'Anisotropie de L'Espace:La nécessaire révision de certains postulats des théories contemporaines, Clément Juglar, Paris, 1997.
* 1997: R. Cowen, "Does the cosmos have a direction?", Science News, 26 April 1997, p.252.
* 1998: Hector Munera, "Michelson-Morley Experiments Revisited: Systematic Errors, Consistency Among Different Experiments, and Compatibility with Absolute Space", Apeiron, Vol. 5 Nr. 1-2, January-April 1998, p.37-54.
* 1999: Maurice Allais: "Des régularités trés significatives dans les observations interférométriques de Dayton C. Miller 1925-1926", Comptes Rendus de L'Académie des Sciences, Paris, t. 327, Série II b, p.1405-1410.
* 1999: Maurice Allais: "Nouvelles régularités tres significatives dans les observations interférométriques de Dayton C. Miller 1925-1926", Comptes Rendus de L'Académie des Sciences, Paris, t. 327, Série II b, p.1411-1419.
* 2000: Maurice Allais: "L'origine des régularités constatées dans les observations interférométriques de Dayton C. Miller 1925-1926: variations de température ou anisotropie de l'espace", Comptes Rendus de L'Académie des Sciences, Paris, t. 1, Série IV, p.1205-1210.
* 2000: James DeMeo: "Critical Review of the Shankland, et al, Analysis of Dayton Miller's Ether-Drift Experiments", Presented to the Natural Philosophy Alliance, Berkeley, Caif. May 2000.
* 2000: Yuri M.Galaev, "Ether-drift. Experiment in the band of radio wave", Petit, Zhukovsky, 2000. (Russian).
* 2000: Yuri M.Galaev, "Ether-drift effects in the experiments on radio wave propagation", Radiophysics and Electronics, Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vol.5, No.1, pp.119-132, 2000. (in Ukraine).
* 2001: Yu.M.Galaev, "Ethereal Wind in Experience of Millimetric Radiowaves Propagation", this is the Galaev citations of 2000, (in English) Spacetime and Substance, V.2, No.5 (10), 2001, P.211-225.
* 2002: Maurice Allais: "Experiments of Dayton C. Miller (1925-1926) and the Theory of Relativity", Pulse of the Planet #5, p.132-137.
* 2002 James DeMeo: "Dayton Miller's Ether Drift Experiments: A Fresh Look",
Pulse of the Planet, 5:114-130, 2002.
* 2002: James DeMeo: "Reconciling Miller's Ether-Drift With Reich's Dynamic Orgone", Pulse of the Planet, 5:137-146, 2002.
* 2002: Yu.M.Galaev, "The Measuring of Ether-Drift Velocity and Kinematic Ether Viscosity Within Optical Waves Band", (in English) Spacetime and Substance, Vol.3, No.5 (15), 2002, P.207-224.
* 2002: Hector Munera: "The effect of solar motion upon the fringe-shifts in a Michelson-Morley interferometer a la Miller", Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol.27 No.3, p.463-484, 2002.
* 2003: M. Consoli, E. Costanzo: "The motion of the Solar System and the Michelson-Morley experiment"
* 2004: Reginald T. Cahill: "Absolute Motion and Gravitational Effects", Apeiron, Vol. 11, No. 1, p.53-111, January 2004.
* 2004: James DeMeo: "A Dynamic and Substantive Cosmological Ether", Proceedings of the Natural Philosophy Alliance, Cynthia Whitney, Editor, Vol.1, No.1, Spring 2004. Arlington, MA. p.15-20.
* 2006: Reginald T. Cahill: "The Roland DeWitte 1991 Experiment (to the Memory of Roland DeWitte)", Progress in Physics, July 2006, p.60-65.
* 2006: Reginald T. Cahill: "A New Light-Speed Anisotropy Experiment: Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves Detected", Progress in Physics, Oct.2006, p.73-92.
* 2006: G.O. Mueller, Karl Kneckebrodt: "95 Years of Criticism of
the Special Theory of Relativity (1908-2003)", [GOM-Project Relativity.
* 2006: Munera H.A., et al: "Observation During 2004 of Periodic Fringe-Shifts in an Adialeiptometric Stationary Michelson-Morley Experiment", Electromagnetic Phenomena (Inst Electromag Res, Kharkov, Ukraine), 6(1):70-92, 2006.
* 2007: Reginald T. Cahill: "Optical-Fiber Gravitational Wave Detector: Dynamical 3-Space Turbulence Detected", Progress in Physics, Oct. 2007, p.63-68.
* 2008: Reginald T. Cahill & Finn Stokes: "Correlated Detection of sub-mHz GravitationalWaves by Two Optical-Fiber Interferometers", Progress in Physics, April 2008, p.103-110.
* 2008: Reginald T. Cahill: "Resolving Spacecraft Earth-Flyby Anomalies with Measured Light Speed Anisotropy", arXiv:0804.0039v3 [physics.gen-ph] 9 Apr 2008.
* 2009: Munera, H.A., et al: "Observation of a Non-conventional Influence of Earth's Motion on the Velocity of Photons, and Calculation of the Velocity of Our Galaxy" Conference in Beijing.
* 2011: Munera, H.A., editor: Should the Laws of Gravitation be Reconsidered?: The Scientific Legacy of Maurice Allais, Aperion Press, 2011.
If you know of additional published ether research or ether-drift experiments which are not on this list, or of internet-available versions of the above articles, please let us know so we can update the listing.
Organizations of Interest to the Subject:
Natural Philosophy Alliance. Open discussions on alternatives to big-bang cosmology and Special Relativity, with many advocates of a cosmic ether in space.
Comite International de Recherche et D'Etude de Facteurs de L'ambiance (CIFA), or International Committee for the research and study of Environmental Factors (CIFA/ICEF). Addressing the work of the late Dr. Giorgio Piccardi:
Alternative Cosmology Group. Open critical discussions on contemporary cosmological theory.
Allais Eclipse Documents in English Website for Maurice Allais and his various physics articles, including original Allais Eclipse Effect documents - in French and English. http://www.flyingkettle.com/allais.htm
Books on these subjects Look at the sections on "Physics", "Life Energy" and "Pulse of the Planet" at the following webpage:
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